Zone
 
European: 5/3b
Asian: 5a/4a
Ussurian: 3a/4
Pollination
  self-sterile, partially self-fertile
Blooms
 
European: between peaches and apples
Asian: around peaches, probably after, but before European pears.
Ussurian: earlier than Asian pears
(in comparison to other species)
Chill Hours
 
European: 150 - 800
Asian: 250 - 500
pH
  6.1 - 6.5 (preferred), 5.1 - 7.3 (acceptable)
Yield
 
European: 3 - 15 years (clone)
Asian: 2 - 4 years (clone)
Ussurian: possibly a few years longer than Asian pears
Native Range and Climate
European pears (Pyrus communis) have been extensively cultivation for nearly three thousand years.  They are native to or primarily naturalized throughout western, eastern, and southern Europe as well as parts of western Asia, such as Turkey and the Caucasus region.  Rainfall within the area is generally equal to or less than 2.5" per month.  Fireblight can be a serious problem, especially in wetter regions, particularly around bloom.


Fireblight
Pears that are resistant to fireblight can still get it quite often in fairly wet regions, but the damage generally doesn't travel very far down the branch.  Regardless, you should cut it out and keep an eye on new growth near the trunk to prevent it from becoming infected.  Varieties that are "very resistant" to blight is a term I tend to use for varieties that have been grown in the deep south with little trouble.


Additional Comments
European pear clones can take a fairly long time to begin bearing fruit, but there are rootstocks that induce early bearing, such as OHxF 87, that can knock the expected number of years down to 2 to 5 (usually 3-4), depending on the variety.



Read More

European Pear
Pyrus communis

Abbe Fetel

Developed in France (1866).
Fruit Size
:
elongated
Storage
:
2 months
Afflictions
:
Susceptible to scab and fireblight.
Abbe Fetel is compatible with quince rootstock.

Arganche

Originated in Macedonia. Introduced to the US in 1960.
Zone
:
4
Ripens
🍏:
early

Tree Size
:
semi-dwarf
Fruit Size
:
50g/fruit
Afflictions
:
Resistant to scab.

Atlantic Queen

Zone
:
5
Ripens
🍏:
late?

Fruit Size
:
up to 1.5 pounds
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.
Atlantic Queen can be a bland and astringent pear when grown in the wrong climate or location.  Will likely require hot summers and full sun exposure.

Bartlett

Originated in Aldermaston, England (1765-1770).
Alias
:
Williams
Zone
:
5
Blooms
💮:
mid
Ripens
🍏:
mid (mid-late)
Chill
:
500 - 600

Storage
:
3 months
Afflictions
:
Susceptible to fireblight.

Blake's Pride

US446 x US505.  Selected in Ohio (1977).
Zone
:
5
Ripens
🍏:
mid-late
Chill
:
800
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.  Somewhat resistant to scab.

Bosc

Originated in Belgium or France (early 1800s).
Zone
:
5a
Ripens
🍏:
late
Chill
:
500 - 600

Color
:
brown russet skin
Storage
:
6 months
Afflictions
:
Susceptible to fireblight.

Cascade

Max Red Bartlett x Comice.  Developed in Oregon.
Blooms
💮:
mid
Ripens
🍏:
late

Color
:
red skin
Storage
:
6 months

Comice

France (1849)
Zone
:
5 (4)
Ripens
🍏:
late
Chill
:
600
Afflictions
:
Susceptible to fireblight.

Conference

Originated in Hertfordshire, England, introduced in 1894.
Zone
:
5
Ripens
🍏:
very late
Afflictions
:
Susceptible to fireblight.

Flemish Beauty

chance seedling.  Originated in Belguim (1810).
Zone
:
4
Blooms
💮:
  .......   :   partially self-fertile
Ripens
🍏:
late
Afflictions
:
Somewhat susceptible to fireblight.
Flemish Beauty is more self-fertile than the average "self-fertile" pear variety (most are self sterile).

Gem

Sheldon x US62563-004 (US309 (US-Michigan 437 x Roi Charles de Waurtemburg) x US539).  Selected in Beltsville, Maryland (1981).
Zone
:
4
Blooms
💮:
mid
Ripens
🍏:
mid-late   :   1 week after Bartlett
precocious

Storage
:
6 months
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.
Flavor is mild and crisp off the tree, closer to that of an Asian pear.  Placing it in cold storage for at least three weeks will give it more flavor and allow it to soften.

Harrow Crisp

Bartlett x US56112-146.  Selected in Harrow, Ontario (1979).
Ripens
🍏:
mid (mid-late)   :   precocious
Storage
:
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.
Harrow Crisp can be picked over a period of 2 weeks, but the earlier they are picked, the longer they will store (for a maximum of 2 months).

Harrow Delight

Purdue 80-15 (Old Home x Early Sweet) x Bartlett.  Selected in Harrow, Ontario (1973).
Zone
:
4
Blooms
💮:
mid-late
Ripens
🍏:
mid? (early-mid)   :   2 weeks before Bartlett?
precocious
Chill
:
800

Tree Size
:
moderate vigor
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight and scab.

Harrow Gold

Harvest Queen x Harrow Delight.  Introduced in Harrow, Ontario (2002).
Ripens
🍏:
mid   :   1.5 weeks before Bartlett
Storage
:
1.5 months
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.

Harrow Sweet

Bartlett x Purdue 80-51 (Old Home x Early Sweet).  Selected in Harrow, Ontario (1980).
Zone
:
3b
Blooms
💮:
mid   :   shortly after Bartlett
Ripens
🍏:
late   :   3 weeks after Bartlett
precocious

Tree Size
:
moderate vigor
Storage
:
Afflictions
:
Somewhat resistant to fireblight.  Resistant to scab?
Harrow Sweet can be stored for up to 3 months, as long as it wasn't picked too late.  May bear earlier than most otherr precocious European pear varieties.

graft compatible with Quince

Harvest Queen

Michigan 572 x Bartlett.  Selected in Harrow, Ontario (1972).
Ripens
🍏:
mid   :   1 week before Bartlett
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.

Highland

Bartlett x Comice.  Developed in New York.
Zone
:
4?
Ripens
🍏:
late   :   3 to 4 weeks after Bartlett

Storage
:
implied to store quite well, even without cold storage.
Afflictions
:
Susceptible to fireblight.

Honeysweet

Seckel x US220 (Vermont Beauty x Roi Charles De Wurtenburg).  Originated in Lafayette, Indiana (1957).
Zone
:
3b?
Ripens
🍏:
mid-late   :   1 week after Bartlett

Tree Size
:
semi-dwarf
Storage
:
stores well
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.
Honeysweet has a higher level of self-fertility than most other European pears, but the fruit will be smaller without cross-pollination.  It is often described as an improved "Seckel", a parent of Honeysweet.

Hudar

parentage unknown, sibling of Nova.  Originated in New York (1988).
Zone
:
2
Ripens
🍏:
early-mid?
Afflictions
:
Somewhat resistant to fireblight.

Luscious

SD E31 x Ewart.  Introduced in South Dakota (1973).
Zone
:
3b? (4)
Blooms
💮:
  .......   :   pollen sterile
Ripens
🍏:
mid
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.

Magness

Seckel x Comice
Zone
:
5
Blooms
💮:
  .......   :   nearly pollen sterile
Ripens
🍏:
mid (mid-late)   :   slow to bear
Chill
:
400

Tree Size
:
very vigorous
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight (less so than its sibling "Warren").  Resistant to scab?

Maxine

Ohio (1845)
Zone
:
5
Ripens
🍏:
mid-late
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.

Moonglow

US-Michigan 437 (Barseck x Bartlett) x Roi Charles de Waurtemburg
Zone
:
5
Ripens
🍏:
mid   :   somewhat precocious?
Chill
:
400 - 500

Tree Size
:
vigorous
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.
Moonglow produces poor quality fruit in the south.

Nova

parentage unknown, sibling of Nova.  Originated in Hammond, New York.
Zone
:
2
Ripens
🍏:
mid-late?

Tree Size
:
low vigor?
Afflictions
:
Somewhat resistant to fireblight and scab.

Orcas

unknown parentage.  Discovered on Orcas Island in Washington.
Zone
:
4
Blooms
💮:
mid-late   :   0.5 weeks after Bartlett
Ripens
🍏:
mid-late

Storage
:
2-3 months
Afflictions
:
Resistant to scab.

Parker

Selected in Minnesota (1920).
Zone
:
2a
Ripens
🍏:
late (mid-late)
Afflictions
:
Susceptible to fireblight and scab.

Perdue

Blooms
💮:
early-mid   :   produces double flowers
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.

Potomac

Moonglow (US-Michigan 437 x Roi Charles de Waurtemburg) x Beurre d'Anjou
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.

Rescue

Zone
:
5
Blooms
💮:
mid (mid-late)
Ripens
🍏:
mid
Storage
:
2-3 months

Seckel

Chance seedling.  Believed to have originated in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania before 1760. Named and introduced in the early 1800's.
Zone
:
4
Ripens
🍏:
late? (mid-late)
Chill
:
500

Tree Size
:
semi-dwarf, 15-20ft tree on non-dwarfing rootstock
Fruit Size
:
1.5" W fruit
Storage
:
does not store for too long
Afflictions
:
Somewhat resistant to fireblight.

Shenandoah

Max Red Bartlett x US56112-146 (US309 (US-Michigan 437 x Roi Charles de Waurtemburg) x OP).  Selected in Kearneysville, West Virginia (1985).
Ripens
🍏:
late   :   4 weeks after Bartlett
precocious?
Storage
:
up to 5 months, reported to be moderately acidic during the first 2 months
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.

Southern Bartlett

bud mutation of Bartlett.  Discovered in Abbeville, Louisiana around 1969.
Blooms
💮:
very early
Ripens
🍏:
  .......   :   precocious
Chill
:
low chill
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight (frequently gets a few mild strikes after bloom).
Southern Bartlett produces fairly poor quality fruit.

Summer Blood Birne

Believed to have originated in Germany.
Zone
:
5
Color
:
pink flesh
Afflictions
:
Resistant to scab.

Warren

Seckel x Comice.  Originated at Hattiesburg, Mississippi, introduced in 1976.
Zone
:
5a (4)
Ripens
🍏:
  .......   :   slow to bear
Chill
:
600
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.
Warren can take nearly a decade to start producing on standard rootstocks.  It can survive fireblight in the deepest parts of the south where its sibling "Magness" may struggle.

European Hybrid Pear
Pyrus hybrid communis

Acres Home

unknown parentage (possibly a hybrid).  Discovered in Houston, Texas.
Blooms
💮:
very early
Ripens
🍏:
  .......   :   precocious
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.

Ayers

Garber (A x E) x Anjou (E).  Originated in Tennessee, introduced in 1954.
Blooms
💮:
mid   :   pollen sterile
Chill
:
600
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.

Baldwin

P. communis x P. pyrifolia?  unknown origin.
Blooms
💮:
very early
Ripens
🍏:
  .......   :   later than other southern pears (up to 1.5 months)
Chill
:
150

Storage
:
may not store too well
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.

Douglas

Kieffer x ? (believed to be Duchesse d'Angouleme).  Originated in Lawrence, Kansas (1897).
Blooms
💮:
early?   :   before Kieffer
Ripens
🍏:
  .......   :   precocious
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.

Early Gold

Ure (P. Ussuriensis x P. Communis) x ???
Zone
:
2
Ripens
🍏:
mid?   :   1.5 weeks before Ure
Early Gold is an improved seedling of "Ure".

Flordahome

Tenn x Hood.  Selected in Gainesville, Florida (1970).
Blooms
💮:
very early
Tree Size
:
semi-dwarf
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight (less resistant than other southern pears).

Garber

P. pyrifolia x P. communis.  Originated in Pennsylvania (before 1880).
Ripens
🍏:
mid-late (late)   :   1-2 weeks before Kieffer
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.

Golden Boy

P. communis x P. pyrifolia.  Wakulla County, Florida.
Blooms
💮:
early
Ripens
🍏:
  .......   :   precocious
Chill
:
low chill
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.
Goldenboy may be an improved seedling or bud sport of LeConte.  It is also quite similar to Fan Stil.

Hood

P. pyrifolia x P. communis
Blooms
💮:
very early
Chill
:
160 - 260
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.

Improved Kieffer

Blooms
💮:
early-mid
Ripens
🍏:
mid-late   :   roughly 3 to 4 weeks before the original Kieffer
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight?

Julienne

unknown parentage, possibly not a hybrid.  Sainte-Julienne, Quebec.
Zone
:
3
Ripens
🍏:
mid-late?
Storage
:
roughly 1 month

Kieffer

Bartlett (E) x ? (A)
Zone
:
5
Blooms
💮:
early-mid
Ripens
🍏:
late   :   precocious
Chill
:
200 - 300
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight (frequently gets a few mild strikes after bloom).
Kieffer has issues with mislabeling.

Larinskaya

Ussuriysk 41-15-9 (P. ussuriensis?) x Clapp's Favorite (E).  Originated in Russia.
Zone
:
3a (2b)
Ripens
🍏:
mid?

Fruit Size
:
125g/fruit
Storage
:
2 months
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight?

LeConte

P. communis x P. pyrifolia
Blooms
💮:
early
Chill
:
250 - 300
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.
There are possibly two "LeConte" pears, one of which is supposedly similar to Kieffer and the other similar to Golden Boy and Fan Stil.  The latter appears to be more common.

Loma

unknown species, possibly not a hybrid.  Originated in the Saguenay area of Quebec.
Zone
:
3
Ripens
🍏:
mid?   :   at least somewhat precocious
Fruit Size
:
100g/fruit

Lorraine

unknown species, possibly not a hybrid.
Zone
:
4
Ripens
🍏:
mid?
Afflictions
:
Resistant to scab and fireblight.

Maxie

Nijisseiki (A) x Max Red Bartlett (E)
Zone
:
5
Blooms
💮:
early-mid
Ripens
🍏:
late? (mid-late)
Afflictions
:
Resistant to scab.

Ooharabeni

? (A) x Max Red Bartlett (E)
Ripens
🍏:
mid-late

Orient

P. communis x P. pyrifolia.  Introduced in Chico, California (1945).
Blooms
💮:
early-mid
Chill
:
350
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.

Patten

Orel 15 x Anjou.  Selected in Iowa around 1915.
Zone
:
3 (2)
Ripens
🍏:
mid-late
Afflictions
:
Resistant to scab.  
Somewhat susceptible to fireblight.

Pineapple

unknown parentage.  May have originated in China. Earliest known location in the US is either Georgia (1888) or South Carolina (prior to 1910).
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.

Southern King

Tennessee (E) x Hosui? (A).  Harris County, Texas.
Chill
:
600
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.

Spalding

Pineapple? x unknown.  Selected in Georgia (1957).
Blooms
💮:
  .......   :   partially self-fertile
Ripens
🍏:
mid-late
Chill
:
350
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.
Spalding is crunchy like an asian pear.

Summercrisp

unknown parentage, believed to be P. communis x P. ussuriensis.  Minnesota 1933.
Zone
:
2b
Ripens
🍏:
mid   :   somewhat precocious?

Storage
:
1.5 to 2 months
Afflictions
:
Resistant or Somewhat resistant to fireblight.
Summercrisp has a taste and texture closer to that of an Asian pear.

Sunrise

75% P. communis x 25% P. pyrifolia?
Ripens
🍏:
mid (early-mid)   :   2 weeks before Bartlett
Storage
:
3 months
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight and scab.

Tennosui

Tennessee (E) x Hosui? (A).  Harris County, Texas.
Chill
:
550 - 600
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.

Ure

P. ussuriensis x P. communis.  Manitoba 1978.
Zone
:
3a
Ripens
🍏:
mid-late?
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight?

Asian Pear
Pyrus pyrifolia

Atago

possibly a cross between Nijisseiki and Imamura Aki
Zone
:
4b
Blooms
💮:
  .......   :   extended bloom
Ripens
🍏:
late
Color
:
brown russet skin

Chojuro

chance seedling.  Japan (1895).
Zone
:
5a (4b)
Ripens
🍏:
late

Color
:
brown russet skin
Afflictions
:
Resistant to scab and alternaria spot.  
Susceptible to fireblight.

Hosui

(Kikusui x Yakumo) x Yakumo.  Selected in Japan 1963.
Zone
:
4b
Ripens
🍏:
mid-late   :   roughly 1 week after Shinseiki
Chill
:
300 - 400

Color
:
brown russet skin
Fruit Size
:
up to 350g
Storage
:
up to 3 months if it's picked a little early
Afflictions
:
Resistant to scab and alternaria spot.  
Susceptible to fireblight and pseudomonas.
The flavor of Hosui is considered to be quite good in hot summer climates, but it will produce moderate fruit with a more pronounced tartness than usual when grown elsewhere.

Ichiban Nashi

Asahi x Kitsukawasei.  Selected in Japan 1969.
Zone
:
4b
Ripens
🍏:
mid
Chill
:
400

Color
:
brown russet skin
Afflictions
:
Resistant to alternaria spot.  
Susceptible to fireblight.  Somewhat susceptible to pseudomonas.

Kikusui

Taihaku x Nijisseiki.  Introduced in Japan (1927).
Zone
:
4b
Ripens
🍏:
mid-late
Chill
:
500

Color
:
green-yellow skin
Afflictions
:
At least Somewhat resistant to fireblight.

Korean Giant

Chojuro x Cheongsilri.  Released in South Korea (1969).
Alias
:
Dan Bae, Olympic, Arirang
Zone
:
5a (4a)
Blooms
💮:
mid
Ripens
🍏:
very late   :   roughly 2 weeks after Ya Li

Color
:
brown russet skin
Fruit Size
:
fruit can weigh well over 1lb
Storage
:
stores well, even outside of the refrigerator
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.

Kosui

Kikusui x Wasekozo.  Released in Japan (1959).
Zone
:
4b
Ripens
🍏:
mid   :   a few days after Shinsui and Ichiban Nashi

Color
:
brown russet skin
Afflictions
:
Resistant to alternaria spot and scab.  
Susceptible to fireblight and pseudomonas.

Mishirasu

Discovered in Hokkaido, Japan (1887) but may have originated in China.
Zone
:
5a (4b)
Ripens
🍏:
late

Color
:
brown russet skin
Fruit Size
:
up to 1lb

Nijisseiki

chance seedling.  Japan (1888).
Alias
:
20th Century
Zone
:
4b
Ripens
🍏:
mid-late   :   biennial bearing
Chill
:
300 - 400

Color
:
yellow skin
Storage
:
5 months
Afflictions
:
Resistant to pseudomonas.  
Susceptible to scab and fireblight.

Raja

Zone
:
4b   :   appears to have had no damage after -22F
Color
:
brown russet skin
Afflictions
:
"disease resistant"...  Resistant to fireblight???
Information on Raja is lacking or non-specific at this time.  It supposedly ripens well in cool summer climates.  Vigorous plant, grew two 5 ft branches in one season at my location.  Others have implied that it grows much faster than their other Asian pears.

Seuri

Originated in China?
Zone
:
5a (4b)
Ripens
🍏:
very late

Color
:
brown russet skin
Storage
:
roughly 1 month
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.
Seuri appears to have a unique flavor.

Shinko

Nijisseiki x ? (possibly Waseaka or Amanogawa).  Japan (1941).
Zone
:
5a
Ripens
🍏:
very late   :   roughly 1 week after Yoinashi and 1 or 2 weeks before Korean Giant
Chill
:
450

Color
:
brown russet skin
Fruit Size
:
up to 1lb
Storage
:
3 or 4 months
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.  Resistant to pseudomonas.
Shinko requires a hot climate to fully develop its flavor.  While other Asian pears have this problem as well, Shinko seems to be the most consistent offender.

Shinseiki

Nijisseiki x Chojuro.  Released in Japan (1945).
Alias
:
New Century
Zone
:
4a?
Ripens
🍏:
mid-late   :   roughly 1 week before Housi
precocious
Chill
:
250 - 400

Color
:
yellow skin
Storage
:
3 or 4 months
Afflictions
:
(SS) to fireblight and pseudomonas? (possibly less susceptible than the majority of Asian pears, may develop resistance as it ages)
Asian pears are known for being quite precocious when compared to most European pears, but Shinseiki may be able to produce as soon as the year after planting.

Shinsui

Kikusui x Kimizuka Wase.  Selected in Japan (1956).
Zone
:
4b
Ripens
🍏:
mid

Color
:
brown russet skin
Fruit Size
:
8oz/fruit
Storage
:
1 to 1.5 months (short)
Afflictions
:
Somewhat resistant to fireblight?

Yakumo

Akaho x Nijisseiki
Zone
:
4b
Ripens
🍏:
early-mid? (mid)
Color
:
yellow skin

Yoinashi

Zone
:
5a (4b)
Ripens
🍏:
late

Color
:
brown russet skin
Afflictions
:
Somewhat resistant to pseudomonas and fireblight.

Ussurian Pear
Pyrus ussuriensis

Golden Spice

Introduced in Minnesota (1949).
Zone
:
2
Blooms
💮:
  .......   :   partially self-fertile?
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.

Krazulya

Pyrus ussuriensis? (Pozdnyaya x Malenkaya Radost).  Originated in Russia.
Zone
:
3a
Ripens
🍏:
early-mid?

Vekovaya

Pyrus ussuriensis?  Originated in Russia.
Zone
:
3a
Ripens
🍏:
mid-late?

(Asian Species) Hybrid Pear
Pyrus hybrid Asia

Daisui Li

Kikusui (P. Pyrifolia) x Tsu Li (P. bretschneideri).  California (1985).
Zone
:
4? (5)
Blooms
💮:
early-mid?
Ripens
🍏:
late

Fruit Size
:
up to 1lb
Storage
:
6 months
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.

Shin Li

Kikusui (A) x Tsu Li (P. bretschneideri).  California 1988. P#6076
Zone
:
4? (5)
Blooms
💮:
early-mid?
Ripens
🍏:
late

Storage
:
6 months
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight?

Tsu Li

Pyrus x bretschneideri.  Originated in the Shantung Province of northeastern China.
Zone
:
5
Blooms
💮:
early-mid?
Ripens
🍏:
very late
Chill
:
300

Storage
:
Tsu Li can store for over 6 months and should be stored for some time before eating.
Afflictions
:
Somewhat resistant to fireblight.

Ya Li

Pyrus x bretschneideri.  Originated in China.
Zone
:
4? (5)
Blooms
💮:
early-mid?
Ripens
🍏:
late (very late)   :   roughly 4 weeks after Nijisseiki and 2 weeks before Korean Giant
Chill
:
200 - 300
Afflictions
:
Somewhat resistant to fireblight.