Pyrus communis, European Pear
Zone
  5/3b
Pollination
  self-sterile
Blooms
(overall) early to mid
Chill Hours
  6.1 - 6.5 (preferred), 5.1 - 7.3 (acceptable)
pH
  6.1 - 6.5 (preferred), 5.1 - 7.3 (acceptable)
Yield
  3 - 15 years (clone)

European pears have been extensively cultivation for nearly three thousand years.   They are native to or primarily naturalized throughout western, eastern, and southern Europe as well as parts of western Asia, such as Turkey and the Caucasus region.   Rainfall within the area is generally equal to or less than 2.5" per month.   In wetter regions, particularly around bloom, fireblight becomes a very serious problem, so resistant cultivars are quite necessary.  

European pear clones can take a fairly long time to begin bearing fruit, but there are precocious rootstocks, such as OHxF 87, that can knock the expected number of years down to 2 to 5, depending on the cultivar.




Pyrus spp, pear
  (additional notes)
Pears that are resistant to fireblight can still get it in fairly wet regions, but the tree will generally shrug it off.   Regardless, you should keep an eye on new growth near the trunk to prevent it from becoming infected.   Very resistant (to fireblight) is a term I tend to use for varieties that have been grown in the deep south quite well.




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European Pear
Pyrus communis

Abbe Fetel

prices
Developed in France (1866).
Storage
:
2 months
Afflictions
:
Susceptible to scab and fireblight.

elongated fruit / compatible with quince rootstock

Arganche

prices
Originated in Macedonia. Introduced to the US in 1960.
Zone
:
4
Ripens
🥝:
early
Size
:
50g/fruit
Afflictions
:
Resistant to scab.

semi-dwarf

Atlantic Queen

prices
Zone
:
5
Ripens
🥝:
late?
Size
:
up to 1.5 pounds
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.

Atlantic Queen can be a bland and astringent pear when grown in the wrong climate or location.   Will likely require hot summers and full sun exposure.

Bartlett

prices
Originated in Aldermaston, England (1765-1770).
Alias
:
Williams
Zone
:
5
Blooms
🌸:
mid
Ripens
🥝:
mid (mid-late)
Chill
:
500 - 600
Storage
:
3 months
Afflictions
:
Susceptible to fireblight.

Blake's Pride

prices
US 446 x US 505. Selected in Ohio (1977).
Zone
:
5
Ripens
🥝:
mid-late
Chill
:
800
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.   Somewhat resistant to scab.

Bosc

prices
Originated in Belgium or France (early 1800s).
Zone
:
5a
Ripens
🥝:
late
Chill
:
500 - 600
Color
:
brown russet skin
Storage
:
6 months
Afflictions
:
Susceptible to fireblight.

Cascade

prices
Max Red Bartlett x Comice. Bred in Oregon.
Blooms
🌸:
mid
Ripens
🥝:
late
Color
:
red skin
Storage
:
6 months

Comice

prices
France 1849
Zone
:
5 (4)
Ripens
🥝:
late
Chill
:
600
Afflictions
:
Susceptible to fireblight.

Conference

prices
Originated in Hertfordshire, England, introduced in 1894.
Zone
:
5
Ripens
🥝:
very late
Afflictions
:
Susceptible to fireblight.

Flemish Beauty

prices
chance seedling. Originated in Belguim (1810).
Zone
:
4
Ripens
🥝:
late
Afflictions
:
Somewhat susceptible to fireblight.

Flemish Beauty is more self-fertile than the average pear variety.

Gem

prices
Sheldon x US62563-004. Selected in Beltsville, Maryland (1981).
Zone
:
4
Blooms
🌸:
mid
Ripens
🥝:
mid-late   :   1 week after Bartlett
Storage
:
6 months
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.

Flavor is mild and crisp off the tree, closer to that of an Asian pear.   Placing it in cold storage for at least three weeks will give it more flavor and allow it to soften.

precocious

Harrow Crisp

prices
Bartlett x US56112-146. Selected in Harrow, Ontario (1979).
Ripens
🥝:
mid (mid-late)
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.

Harrow Crisp can be picked over a period of 2 weeks, but the earlier they are picked, the longer they will store (for a maximum of 2 months).  

precocious

Harrow Delight

prices
Bartlett x (Old Home x Early Sweet). Selected in Harrow, Ontario (1973).
Zone
:
4
Blooms
🌸:
mid-late
Ripens
🥝:
mid? (early-mid)   :   2 weeks before Bartlett?
Chill
:
800
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight and scab.

Harrow Gold

prices
Harvest Queen x Harrow Delight. Introduced in Harrow, Ontario (2002).
Ripens
🥝:
mid   :   1.5 weeks before Bartlett
Storage
:
1.5 months
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.

Harrow Sweet

prices
Bartlett x Purdue 80-51. Selected in Harrow, Ontario (1980).
Zone
:
3b
Blooms
🌸:
mid   :   shortly after Bartlett
Ripens
🥝:
late   :   3 weeks after Bartlett
Afflictions
:
Somewhat resistant to fireblight.

Harrow Sweet can be stored for up to 3 months, as long as it wasn't picked too late.   Precocious, possibly even more so than other precocious Euro pear cultivars.  

graft compatible with Quince

Harvest Queen

prices
Michigan 572 x Bartlett. Selected in Harrow, Ontario (1972).
Ripens
🥝:
mid   :   1 week before Bartlett
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.

Highland

prices
Bartlett x Comice. Developed in New York.
Zone
:
4?
Ripens
🥝:
late   :   3 to 4 weeks after Bartlett
Storage
:
implied to store quite well, even without cold storage.
Afflictions
:
Susceptible to fireblight.

Honeysweet

prices
Seckel x U.S. 220 (Vermont Beauty x Roi Charles De Wurtenburg). First planted in Lafayette, Indiana (1957).
Zone
:
3b?
Ripens
🥝:
mid-late   :   1 week after Bartlett
Storage
:
stores well
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.

Honeysweet has a higher level of self-fertility than most other European pears, but the fruit will be smaller without cross-pollination.   It is often described as an improved "Seckel", a parent of Honeysweet.

semi-dwarf

Hudar

prices
parentage unknown. Originated in New York. Introduced in 1988. sibling of Nova.
Zone
:
2
Ripens
🥝:
early-mid?
Afflictions
:
Somewhat resistant to fireblight.

Luscious

prices
SD E31 x Ewart. Introduced in South Dakota (1973).
Zone
:
3b? (4)
Ripens
🥝:
mid
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.

Luscious cannot be used to pollinate other trees.

Magness

prices
Seckel x Comice
Zone
:
5
Ripens
🥝:
mid (mid-late)
Chill
:
400
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight (less so than its sibling "Warren").

Magness cannot be used to pollinate other trees.  

low chill

Maxine

prices
Ohio 1845
Zone
:
5
Ripens
🥝:
mid-late
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.

Moonglow

prices
US-Mich. 437 (Bartlett x Comice) x Roi Charles de Waurtemburg
Zone
:
5
Ripens
🥝:
mid
Chill
:
400 - 500
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.

precocious / produces poor quality fruit in the south

Nova

prices
parentage unknown. Originated in Hammond, New York. sibling of Hudar.
Zone
:
2
Ripens
🥝:
mid-late?
Afflictions
:
Somewhat resistant to fireblight and scab.

Orcas

prices
unknown parentage. Discovered on Orcas Island in Washington.
Zone
:
4
Blooms
🌸:
mid-late   :   0.5 weeks after Bartlett
Ripens
🥝:
mid-late
Storage
:
2-3 months
Afflictions
:
Resistant to scab.

Parker

prices
Selected in Minnesota (1920).
Zone
:
2a
Ripens
🥝:
late (mid-late)
Afflictions
:
Susceptible to fireblight and scab.

Patten

prices
Orel 15 (hybrid?) x Anjou. Selected in Iowa around 1915.
Zone
:
3 (2)
Ripens
🥝:
mid-late
Afflictions
:
Resistant to scab.  
Somewhat susceptible to fireblight.

Perdue

prices
Blooms
🌸:
early-mid   :   produces double flowers
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.

Potomac

prices
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.

Rescue

prices
Zone
:
5
Blooms
🌸:
mid (mid-late)
Ripens
🥝:
mid
Storage
:
2-3 months

Seckel

prices
Chance seedling. Believed to have originated in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania before 1760. Named and introduced in the early 1800's.
Zone
:
4
Ripens
🥝:
late? (mid-late)
Chill
:
500
Size
:
15-20ft tree, 1.5" W fruit
Storage
:
does not store for too long
Afflictions
:
Somewhat resistant to fireblight.

semi-dwarf

Shenandoah

prices
Max Red Bartlett x US 56112-146. Selected in Kearneysville, West Virginia (1985).
Ripens
🥝:
late   :   4 weeks after Bartlett
Storage
:
up to 5 months, reported to be moderately acidic during the first 2 months
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.

precocious?

Southern Bartlett

prices
Sport of Bartlett. Discovered in Abbeville, Louisiana around 1969.
Blooms
🌸:
very early
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight (frequently gets a few mild strikes after bloom).

Southern Bartlett is precocious but it produces fairly poor quality fruit.

low chill

Spalding

prices
Pineapple? x unknown. Selected in Georgia (1957).
Ripens
🥝:
mid-late
Chill
:
350
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.

crunchy like an asian pear

Summer Blood Birne

prices
Believed to have originated in Germany.
Zone
:
5
Color
:
pink flesh
Afflictions
:
Resistant to scab.

Warren

prices
Seckel x Comice. Originated at Hattiesburg, Mississippi, introduced in 1976.
Zone
:
5a (4)
Chill
:
600
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.

Warren can take nearly a decade to start producing on standard rootstocks.   It can survive fireblight in the deepest parts of the south while its sibling "Magness" may struggle.

Asian Pear
Pyrus pyrifolia

20th Century

prices
chance seedling, Japan 1888.
Alias
:
Nijisseiki
Zone
:
4b
Ripens
🥝:
mid-late
Chill
:
300 - 400
Color
:
yellow skin
Storage
:
5 months
Afflictions
:
Resistant to pseudomonas.  
Susceptible to scab and fireblight.

Atago

prices
possibly a cross between 20th Century and Imamura Aki
Zone
:
4b
Ripens
🥝:
late
Color
:
brown russet skin

Chojuro

prices
chance seedling, Japan 1895.
Zone
:
5a (4b)
Ripens
🥝:
late
Color
:
brown russet skin
Afflictions
:
Resistant to scab and alternaria spot.  
Susceptible to fireblight.

Hosui

prices
(Kikusui x Yakumo) x Yakumo. Selected in Japan 1963.
Zone
:
4b
Ripens
🥝:
mid-late   :   roughly 1 week after Shinseiki
Chill
:
300 - 400
Size
:
up to 350g/fruit
Color
:
brown russet skin
Storage
:
up to 3 months if it's picked a little early
Afflictions
:
Resistant to scab and alternaria spot.  
Susceptible to fireblight and pseudomonas.

The flavor of Hosui is considered to be quite good in hot summer climates, but it will produce moderate fruit with a more pronounced tartness than usual when grown elsewhere.

Ichiban Nashi

prices
Asahi x Kitsukawasei. Selected in Japan 1969.
Zone
:
4b
Ripens
🥝:
mid
Chill
:
400
Color
:
brown russet skin
Afflictions
:
Resistant to alternaria spot.  
Susceptible to fireblight.   Somewhat susceptible to pseudomonas.

Kikusui

prices
Taihaku x 20th Century. Introduced in Japan (1927).
Zone
:
4b
Ripens
🥝:
mid-late
Chill
:
500
Color
:
green-yellow skin
Afflictions
:
At least Somewhat resistant to fireblight.

precocious

Korean Giant

prices
Chojuro x Cheongsilri. Released in South Korea (1969).
Alias
:
Dan Bae, Olympic, Arirang
Zone
:
5a (4a)
Blooms
🌸:
mid
Ripens
🥝:
very late   :   roughly 2 weeks after Ya Li
Size
:
fruit can weigh well over 1LB
Color
:
brown russet skin
Storage
:
stores well, even outside of the refrigerator
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.

precocious

Kosui

prices
Kikusui x Wasekozo.  Released in Japan (1959).
Zone
:
4b
Ripens
🥝:
mid   :   a few days after Shinsui and Ichiban Nashi
Color
:
brown russet skin
Afflictions
:
Resistant to alternaria spot and scab.  
Susceptible to fireblight and pseudomonas.

Mishirasu

prices
Discovered in Hokkaido, Japan (1887) but may have originated in China.
Zone
:
5a (4b)
Ripens
🥝:
late
Size
:
1LB fruit
Color
:
brown russet skin

Raja

prices
Zone
:
4b   :   appears to have had no damage after -22F
Color
:
brown russet skin
Afflictions
:
"disease resistant"...   Resistant to fireblight???

Information on Raja is lacking or non-specific at this time.   Supposedly ripens well in cool summer climates.   Vigorous plant, grew two 5 ft branches in one season at my location.   Others have implied that it grows much faster than their other Asian pears.

Seuri

prices
Originated in China?
Zone
:
5a (4b)
Ripens
🥝:
very late
Color
:
brown russet skin
Storage
:
roughly 1 month
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.

Seuri appears to have a unique flavor.

Shinko

prices
20th Century x ? (possibly Waseaka or Amanogawa). Japan 1941.
Zone
:
5a
Ripens
🥝:
very late   :   roughly 1 week after Yoinashi and 1 or 2 weeks before Korean Giant
Chill
:
450
Size
:
1LB fruit
Color
:
brown russet skin
Storage
:
3 or 4 months
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.   Resistant to pseudomonas.

Shinko requires a hot climate to fully develop its flavor.   While other Asian pears have this problem as well, Shinko seems to be the most consistent offender.

Shinseiki

prices
20th Century x Chojuro. Released in Japan (1945).
Alias
:
New Century
Zone
:
4a?
Ripens
🥝:
mid-late   :   roughly 1 week before Housi
Chill
:
250 - 400
Color
:
yellow skin
Storage
:
3 or 4 months
Afflictions
:
(SS) to fireblight and pseudomonas? (possibly less susceptible than the majority of Asian pears, may develop resistance as it ages)

Asian pears are known for being quite precocious when compared to most European pears, but Shinseiki may be able to produce as soon as the year after planting.

Shinsui

prices
Kikusui x Kimizuka Wase. Selected in Japan (1956).
Zone
:
4b
Ripens
🥝:
mid
Size
:
8oz/fruit
Color
:
brown russet skin
Storage
:
1 to 1.5 months (short)
Afflictions
:
Somewhat resistant to fireblight?

Yakumo

prices
Akaho x Nijisseiki
Zone
:
4b
Ripens
🥝:
early-mid? (mid)
Color
:
yellow skin

Yoinashi

prices
Zone
:
5a (4b)
Ripens
🥝:
late
Color
:
brown russet skin
Afflictions
:
Somewhat resistant to pseudomonas and fireblight.

Ussurian Pear
Pyrus ussuriensis

Golden Spice

prices
Introduced in Minnesota (1949).
Zone
:
2
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.

Golden Spice is supposedly partially self-fertile.   Other Ussurian pears and their hybrids seem to typically be self-sterile.

Krazulya

prices
Pyrus ussuriensis? Pozdnyaya x Malenkaya Radost. Originated in Russia.
Zone
:
3a
Ripens
🥝:
early-mid?

Vekovaya

prices
Pyrus ussuriensis? Originated in Russia.
Zone
:
3a
Ripens
🥝:
mid-late?

Chinese Pear
Pyrus x bretschneideri

Tsu Li

prices
Originated in the Shantung Province of northeastern China
Zone
:
5
Blooms
🌸:
early-mid?
Ripens
🥝:
very late
Chill
:
300
Storage
:
Tsu Li can store for over 6 months and should be stored for some time before eating.
Afflictions
:
Somewhat resistant to fireblight.

Ya Li

prices
old China pear
Zone
:
4? (5)
Blooms
🌸:
early-mid?
Ripens
🥝:
late (very late)   :   roughly 4 weeks after 20th Century and 2 weeks before Korean Giant
Chill
:
200 - 300
Afflictions
:
Somewhat resistant to fireblight.

Hybrid Pear
Pyrus hybrid

Acres Home

prices
unknown parentage (possibly a hybrid). Discovered in Houston, Texas.
Blooms
🌸:
very early
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.

precocious?

Ayers

prices
Garber (P. pyrifolia x P. communis) x Anjou (P. communis). Originated in Tennessee, introduced in 1954.
Blooms
🌸:
mid
Chill
:
600
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.

pollen sterile

Baldwin

prices
P. communis x P. pyrifolia?.  unknown origin.
Blooms
🌸:
very early
Chill
:
150
Storage
:
may not store too well
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.

Baldwin may take longer to produce than other southern pears.

Daisui Li

prices
Kikusui (P. Pyrifolia) x Tsu Li (P. bretschneideri). California 1985.
Zone
:
4? (5)
Blooms
🌸:
early-mid?
Ripens
🥝:
late
Size
:
up to 1LB fruit
Storage
:
6 months
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.

Douglas

prices
Kieffer x ? (believed to be Duchesse d'Angouleme). Originated in Lawrence, Kansas (1897).
Blooms
🌸:
early?   :   before Kieffer
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight.

precocious

Early Gold

prices
Ure (P. Ussuriensis x P. Communis) x ???
Zone
:
2
Ripens
🥝:
mid?   :   1.5 weeks before Ure

Early Gold is an improved seedling of "Ure".

Flordahome

prices
Tenn x Hood. Selected in Gainesville, Florida (1970).
Blooms
🌸:
very early
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight (less resistant than other southern pears).

semi-dwarf

Garber

prices
P. pyrifolia x P. communis. Originated in Pennsylvania (before 1880).
Ripens
🥝:
mid-late (late)   :   1-2 weeks before Kieffer
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.

Golden Boy

prices
P. communis x P. pyrifolia. Wakulla County, Florida.
Blooms
🌸:
early
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.

Goldenboy may be an improved seedling or bud sport of LeConte.   It is also quite similar to Fan Stil.

precocious / low chill

Hood

prices
P. pyrifolia x P. communis
Blooms
🌸:
very early
Chill
:
160 - 260
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.

Improved Kieffer

prices
Blooms
🌸:
early-mid
Ripens
🥝:
mid-late   :   roughly 3 to 4 weeks before the original Kieffer
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight?

Julliene

prices
unknown species, possibly not a hybrid. Sainte-Julienne, Quebec.
Zone
:
3
Ripens
🥝:
mid-late?
Storage
:
roughly 1 month

Kieffer

prices
Bartlett (P. Communis) x ? (P. Pyrifolia)
Zone
:
5
Blooms
🌸:
early-mid
Ripens
🥝:
late
Chill
:
200 - 300
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight (frequently gets a few mild strikes after bloom).

precocious/ low chill / has mislabeling issues

Larinskaya

prices
Ussuriysk 41-15-9 (P. ussuriensis?) x Clapp’s Favorite (P. communis). Originated in Russia.
Zone
:
3a (2b)
Ripens
🥝:
mid?
Size
:
125g/fruit
Storage
:
2 months
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight?

LeConte

prices
P. communis x P. pyrifolia
Blooms
🌸:
early
Chill
:
250 - 300
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.

There are possibly two "LeConte" pears, one of which is supposedly similar to Kieffer and the other similar to Golden Boy and Fan Stil.   The latter appears to be more common.

Loma

prices
unknown species, possibly not a hybrid. Originated in the Saguenay area of Quebec.
Zone
:
3
Ripens
🥝:
mid?
Size
:
100g/fruit

Loma pear is at least somewhat precocious.

Lorraine

prices
unknown species, possibly not a hybrid.
Zone
:
4
Ripens
🥝:
mid?
Afflictions
:
Resistant to scab and fireblight.

Maxie

prices
20th Century (P. pyrifolia) x Max Red Bartlett (P. communis)
Zone
:
5
Blooms
🌸:
early-mid
Ripens
🥝:
late? (mid-late)
Afflictions
:
Resistant to scab.

Ooharabeni

prices
? (P. pyrifolia) x Max Red Bartlett (P. communis)
Ripens
🥝:
mid-late

Orient

prices
P. communis x P. pyrifolia. Introduced in Chico, California (1945).
Blooms
🌸:
early-mid
Chill
:
350
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.

Pineapple

prices
unknown parentage. May have originated in China. Earliest known location in the US is either Georgia (1888) or South Carolina (prior to 1910).
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.

Shin Li

prices
Kikusui (P. Pyrifolia) x Tsu Li (P. bretschneideri). California 1988. P#6076
Zone
:
4? (5)
Blooms
🌸:
early-mid?
Ripens
🥝:
late
Storage
:
6 months
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight?

Southern King

prices
Tennessee (P. communis) x Hosui? (P. pyrifolia). Harris County, Texas.
Chill
:
600
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.

Summercrisp

prices
unknown parentage, believed to be P. communis x P. ussuriensis. Minnesota 1933.
Zone
:
2b
Ripens
🥝:
mid
Storage
:
1.5 to 2 months
Afflictions
:
Resistant or Somewhat resistant to fireblight.

Summercrisp has a taste and texture closer to that of an Asian pear.

somewhat precocious?

Sunrise

prices
75% P. communis x 25% P. pyrifolia?
Ripens
🥝:
mid (early-mid)   :   2 weeks before Bartlett
Storage
:
3 months
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight and scab.

Tennosui

prices
Tennessee (P. communis) x Hosui? (P. pyrifolia). Harris County, Texas.
Chill
:
550 - 600
Afflictions
:
Very resistant to fireblight.

Ure

prices
P. ussuriensis x P. communis. Manitoba 1978.
Zone
:
3a
Ripens
🥝:
mid-late?
Afflictions
:
Resistant to fireblight?