peach species [+/-]
Enviroment
Peaches are best grown in a semi-dry climate, especially when paired with drip irrigation. Disease resistant cultivars are required in wetter climates if you do not wish to spray your trees.

Peach trees can usually survive down to zone 5a (-15 to -20F) or lower, but their flower buds are only hardy down to roughly -5F to -12F, depending on the weather of the previous few days. Bud hardiness begins around -5F, but they develop a few extra degrees of hardiness, down to -12F, for every day the temperature is below 29F. If the temperature rises above freezing once again, even for just a few hours, the process restarts. Some of the more cold hardy cultivars, typically the later blooming ones, have fruited after experiencing zone 5a/4b temperatures (-18F to -23F), so they are capable of achieving bud hardiness much greater than -12F. Siberian C can probably fruit after experiencing even colder temperatures than -23F.
Pollination
Self-fertile
Soil
Prefers slightly acidic soil (6.1 - 6.5). Intolerant of Saline Soil
Other
Plum Curculio attack peaches less often than plums and nectarines because the fuzz protects the fruit.

Some nurseries list most of their peaches as being hardy down to zone 6, but a few others have the same cultivars listed as zone 5. This is probably because their buds are hardy down to 6b by default, but some nurseries take advantage of the fact that they can develop increased hardiness during the winter, as mentioned in the environment section, and the tree itself can survive down to zone 5. Which zone is more appropriate depends entirely on the climate since some zone 5 areas are more suitable than others.

Blossom damage from spring frost is a fairly common issue throughout much of the US, although I'm under the impression that most areas still end up producing fruit more often than not. You can help avoid this problem by planting late blooming cultivars.

Peach leaf curl is a problem in areas that experience cool and wet winter or spring conditions. This is why many cultivars are harder to grow in the Willamette Valley as well as much of the Eastern half of the US. If you do not plan on spraying to keep the disease at bay, aim for resistant cultivars. This is far from being a perfect solution though, I believe "very resistant" cultivars aren't even close to being immune, so you may continue have problems with the disease. You can still get peaches if you ignore peach leaf curl altogether, the tree just won't be as productive as it could be.
Additional Reading
Selecting Peach and Nectarine Varieties for the Willamette Valley
Peach and Nectarine Varieties for Virginia
Michigan peach harvest date prediction
Home Fruit Production: Peach and Nectarine Culture
Suggested Peach Varieties for Alabama
Cold Resistance of Stone Fruit Flower Buds, ,

Peach
Prunus persica

Autumn Rose

Zone
:
5
Ripens
:
Late?
Color
:
red and white flesh
Afflictions
:
Resistant or very resistant to peach leaf curl.

Avalon Pride

chance seedling. Originated in Washington, near Seattle.
Zone
:
4
Stone
:
semi-freestone
Color
:
yellow flesh
Afflictions
:
Resistant or very resistant to peach leaf curl.

Babcock

Zone
:
6
Blooms
:
Blooms later than other low chill peaches.
Ripens
:
Early?
Chill Hours
:
250-300
Stone
:
freestone
Color
:
white flesh

precocious, lightly fuzzed

Belle of Georgia

Zone
:
5
Chill Hours
:
800+
Stone
:
freestone
Color
:
white flesh
Afflictions
:
Resistant to bacterial spot.

Black Boy

Zone
:
5?
Color
:
dark red skin and flesh
Afflictions
:
Resistant to peach leaf curl.

Canadian Harmony

Originated in Ontario, Canada.
Zone
:
5? (maybe 6)
Ripens
:
Mid to Mid-Late
Chill Hours
:
850-1000
Stone
:
freestone
Color
:
yellow flesh
Afflictions
:
Susceptible to bacterial spot.

There is some wildly contradicting information about the hardiness and bloom time of Canadian Harmony but it appears that it is not a late bloomer. Those in colder climates may be better off with a different cultivar, although experimentation is always welcomed. Canadian Harmony is an excessively vigorous grower.

Charlotte

Color
:
yellow flesh
Afflictions
:
Resistant or very resistant to peach leaf curl. May have resistance to bacterial canker.

Charlotte peach is also known as Strahl.

Contender

Zone
:
4
Blooms
:
Late
Ripens
:
Mid-Late
Chill Hours
:
1050
Stone
:
freestone
Color
:
yellow flesh
Afflictions
:
Resistant to bacterial spot. Resistant to brown rot?

Contender is a very popular cultivar for the north and the south. It is late blooming, disease resistant, and often mentioned for having good flavor.

Desert Gold

Zone
:
8?
Blooms
:
Early
Ripens
:
Early?
Chill Hours
:
250 or less
Stone
:
clingstone
Color
:
yellow flesh

Earligrande

Originated in Texas, near the Gulf Coast.
Zone
:
8?
Blooms
:
Early
Ripens
:
Early?
Chill Hours
:
225-300
Stone
:
semi-freestone to clingstone
Color
:
yellow flesh

Early Redhaven

A bud mutation of Redhaven.
Zone
:
6?
Ripens
:
Early
Chill Hours
:
950
Stone
:
semi-freestone
Color
:
yellow flesh

El Dorado

Zone
:
6
Blooms
:
Early-Mid?
Chill Hours
:
400
Stone
:
freestone
Color
:
yellow flesh

El Dorado is a miniature tree that can be maintained around 5ft tall.

Elberta

Chinese Cling x open pollination. Introduced in Marshallville, GA 1889.
Zone
:
5
Ripens
:
Late
Chill Hours
:
600-800
Stone
:
freestone
Color
:
yellow flesh
Afflictions
:
Resistant to bacterial spot and brown rot.

Empress Dwarf

Zone
:
5?
Chill Hours
:
850
Color
:
yellow flesh

Empress Dwarf is a miniature tree that can be maintained around 5ft in height.

Florida Prince

Originated in Florida.
Zone
:
7?
Blooms
:
Early
Chill Hours
:
150
Stone
:
semi-freestone
Color
:
yellow flesh

Flory

Zone
:
7?
Chill Hours
:
400
Stone
:
freestone
Color
:
white flesh

Flory is a miniature tree that produces double red-pink flowers and can be maintained around 5ft in height.

Frost

Zone
:
5?
Blooms
:
Late?
Chill Hours
:
700
Stone
:
semi-freestone
Color
:
yellow flesh
Afflictions
:
Develops resistance to peach leaf curl as it ages.

Harken

Originated in Canada.
Zone
:
5
Blooms
:
Mid-Late? may not be amongst the most cold hardy peaches but it may still be above average.
Ripens
:
Early-Mid?
Chill Hours
:
800
Stone
:
freestone
Color
:
yellow flesh
Afflictions
:
Resistant to brown rot.

Indian Free

Zone
:
5
Blooms
:
Late
Ripens
:
Late?
Chill Hours
:
700
Stone
:
freestone
Color
:
tan skin and white-cream-red flesh
Afflictions
:
Resistant to peach leaf curl. Some susceptibility to bacterial spot, brown rot, and cracking.

Indian Free is said to be a good flavored peach with high sugar and high acid content. self-sterile

J H Hale

Zone
:
5
Blooms
:
Late
Chill Hours
:
400-900?
Stone
:
freestone
Color
:
yellow flesh

light fuzz, self-sterile

La Feliciana

Originated in Louisiana.
Zone
:
7?
Blooms
:
Early-Mid?
Chill Hours
:
400-550
Stone
:
freestone
Color
:
yellow flesh
Afflictions
:
Resistant to brown rot and bacterial spot.

Loring

Frank x Halehaven. Introduced in Grove, Missouri 1946.
Zone
:
6? (5)
Ripens
:
Mid-Late
Chill Hours
:
750+
Stone
:
freestone
Color
:
yellow flesh
Afflictions
:
Some resistance to bacterial spot.

light fuzz, ornamental bloom

Mary Jane

Zone
:
5?
Stone
:
freestone
Color
:
yellow flesh
Afflictions
:
Some resistance to peach leaf curl.

Nanaimo

Zone
:
5?
Stone
:
freestone
Color
:
yellow flesh
Afflictions
:
Resistant to peach leaf curl.

O'Henry

Merill Bonanza x open pollination. Introduced in Red Bluff, CA 1970.
Zone
:
6? (5)
Blooms
:
I have seen contradicting information about blossom hardiness.
Ripens
:
Late to Very Late
Chill Hours
:
700-800
Stone
:
freestone
Color
:
yellow flesh
Afflictions
:
Susceptible to bacterial spot. Some susceptible to cracking.

O'Henry produces nearly fuzzless peaches.

Oregon Curl Free

Zone
:
5
Stone
:
semi-freestone
Color
:
yellow flesh
Afflictions
:
Resistant to peach leaf curl.

Polly

Zone
:
5a
Blooms
:
Late
Chill Hours
:
1000
Stone
:
freestone
Color
:
white flesh

Polly is possibly the most cold tolerant white peach.

Ranger

Zone
:
5
Blooms
:
Late to Very Late
Chill Hours
:
900
Stone
:
freestone
Color
:
yellow flesh

Redhaven

Halehaven x Kalhaven. Released in Michigan 1940.
Zone
:
4b?
Blooms
:
Mid-Late. Blossoms have some tolerance to spring frost.
Ripens
:
Early-Mid
Chill Hours
:
800+
Stone
:
freestone to semi-freestone
Color
:
yellow flesh
Afflictions
:
Some susceptibility to brown rot?

There is a lot of contradicting information about Redhaven coming from nurseries and universities but experienced home growers regularly imply that it is a fairly decent cultivar throughout the US.

Reliance

Originated in New Hampshire.
Zone
:
4?-8
Blooms
:
Late
Ripens
:
Mid
Chill Hours
:
800-950
Stone
:
freestone
Color
:
yellow flesh

Rick Landt

Zone
:
5
Ripens
:
Very Late?
Afflictions
:
Resistant to peach leaf curl.

Roza

Zone
:
5
Stone
:
freestone
Color
:
yellow flesh
Afflictions
:
Resistant to brown rot.

Salish Summer

Originated in Washington. Q-1-8
Zone
:
5
Blooms
:
Late
Chill Hours
:
700-800
Stone
:
semi-freestone
Color
:
white flesh
Afflictions
:
Resistant to peach leaf curl.

Santa Barbara

Zone
:
7?
Chill Hours
:
300
Stone
:
freestone
Color
:
yellow flesh

Saturn

Zone
:
5
Blooms
:
Early-Mid
Ripens
:
Early-Mid
Chill Hours
:
400
Stone
:
freestone
Color
:
white flesh
Afflictions
:
Resistant to bacterial spot. Very susceptible to brown rot.

Saturn produces double pink flowers.

Siberian C

Zone
:
3?
Blooms
:
Late?

Siberian C produces smaller, softer peaches. I'm not sure what the general opinion is on its taste, but based on what little I have seen, it's worth a try. Supposedly true to seed, I wonder if Siberian C is a variety rather than a cultivar. Used as a rootstock in colder climates.

Southern Rose

Zone
:
7?
Chill Hours
:
250
Stone
:
freestone
Color
:
yellow flesh

Southern Rose is a miniature tree that can be maintained around 5ft in height.

Summerset

Zone
:
6
Ripens
:
Late or Very Late?
Chill Hours
:
700
Stone
:
freestone
Color
:
yellow flesh

Suncrest

Originated in Fresno, CA 1959.
Zone
:
5
Blooms
:
Mid-Late, frost hardy blossoms.
Ripens
:
Mid to Mid-Late
Chill Hours
:
500
Stone
:
freestone
Color
:
yellow flesh

Sweet Bagel

Zone
:
6?
Chill Hours
:
300-400
Color
:
yellow flesh
Afflictions
:
Susceptible or very susceptible to bacterial spot and brown rot.

Tropic Beauty

Zone
:
7?
Chill Hours
:
150
Stone
:
semi-freestone
Color
:
yellow flesh

Tropic Snow

Originated in Florida 1988.
Zone
:
6?
Blooms
:
Early
Chill Hours
:
200
Stone
:
freestone
Color
:
white flesh

Veteran

Originated in Canada.
Zone
:
5
Blooms
:
Late
Ripens
:
Mid-Late
Chill Hours
:
900
Stone
:
freestone to semi-freestone
Color
:
yellow flesh

Veteran peaches are covered in a heavier fuzz than the average cultivar.