Actinidia arguta, hardy kiwi
Zone
  5/3b
Pollination
  self-sterile (dioecious) spp
Blooms
(overall) extremely late: 3 weeks after apples (fruiting shoots are still vulnerable to late frost)
Ripens
  3.5 to 5.5 months? (cool summer)
pH
  5.5 to 6.0 (preferred), up to 7.2 (acceptable) spp
Yield
  4 - 5 years (clone)

Hardy kiwis are native the Korea, Japan, Manchuria, and the southeastern half of China (with an emphasis near its border with the northwestern half).  

In Korea, Japan, and China, rainfall can be very high during its 5 to 8+ month grow season, ranging between 2 to 7 inches per month, with very heavy cloud coverage during a third of it (70-85% overcast in some areas).  The average July high ranges between 80F (26.7C) and 90F (32.2C).

In Manchuria, rainfall is generally between 1" to 5" per month, with a very pronounced bell curve, during a 4 to 5 month grow season.   The average July high resides around 80F (26.7C).

In most locations throughout its native range, the dormant season is very dry.




Actinidia kolomikta, arctic kiwi
Zone
  3a
Pollination
  self-sterile (dioecious) spp
Blooms
(overall) very late: 1 week after apples
Ripens
  3.5 to 4.5 months? (cool summer)
pH
  5.5 to 6.0 (preferred), up to 7.2 (acceptable) spp
Yield
  3 - 4 years (clone)

Arctic kiwis are native to a similar range as hardy kiwis, but is shifted further to the northeast.  

After a few years, the leaves of certain arctic kiwi plants, usually male, start to turn partially to fully white or pink.   It is very ornamental, but it only lasts about a month.   The pink fades and the white turns slightly yellow or tan for the rest of the grow season.   Duration could vary based on climate and cultivar, but I have not heard anything about this yet.   Exposure to (an unknown amount of) shade will prevent the leaves from turning colors.




Actinidia deliciosa, fuzzy kiwi
Zone
  7a/8a/6b
Pollination
  self-sterile (dioecious) spp
Ripens
  6.5 to 8 months? (hot summer)
pH
  5.5 to 6.0 (preferred), up to 7.2 (acceptable) spp
Yield
  2 - 3 years (clone)

Fuzzy kiwis are native to southeast and central China.   The area generally receives 2 to 7+ inches of rainfall per month throughout their very long grow season.   Cloud coverage can be quite consistent (65-80%) for up to 3 months in the middle of the year.   The average July high is around 90F (32.2C).  

A brix level as low as 6.2 can be used to determine maturity (may depend on the cultivar, and should probably be higher anyways).   Kiwis can then be harvested and stored away, where their brix level may double or triple with time.   Some A. deliciosa varieties should be able to store for up to 6 months under the right conditions (most varieties of the various kiwiberry species do not store well).

Information on Actinidia chinensis (Golden or Yangtao Kiwi) is more difficult to come by, but I'm (partially) assuming it's fairly consistent with that of A. deliciosa, with the primary differences being the generally smaller fruit size, significantly less dramatic fuzz, and the yellow flesh of A. chinensis.




Actinidia spp, kiwi
  (additional notes)
Actinidia species sometimes referred to as kiwiberries produce small, fuzzless fruit, roughly the size of a grape.   Their flavor is similar to the kiwifruit we are all familiar with, but kiwiberries are usually sweeter.   Arctic kiwis survive colder temperatures than hardy kiwis, but they awaken from dormancy slightly earlier.  While they both bloom much later than apples, their ability to fruit may still be vulnerable to frost damage.   blossoms sprout on new growth on hardy kiwis, but I'm not sure how soon the fruiting shoots start to grow.  They do start to leaf out very early, along with the apricot bloom.   If their leaves are damaged, they will quickly regrow, but if their fruiting shoots are damaged, at least on the hardy kiwi, it will not fruit for the rest of the year.   On arctic kiwis, the blossoms appear to sprout at the edge of old and new wood, so I'm not sure if they are vulnerable as well.

Kiwiberries tolerate shade quite well, but it may encourage them to start bearing at an older age.   Arctic kiwis may even prefer partial shade over full sun since their leaves may start to burn up after about 3.5 months (may have been an irrigation issue), even in a cool summer climate.   Partial shade does not appear to significantly affect the fruit quality as well.   I have not tested hardy kiwis in partial shade, nor have I tested either in full shade.

Pruning appears to be very important for a proper kiwiberry fruitset.   Blossoms almost exclusively develop on (hardy) or adjacent to (arctic) shoots that grow on 1 year old canes.   You can plant 1 male vine for every 6 to 8 female vines.  The blossoms of A. kolomikta and A. arguta do not overlap, so they cannot pollinate each other under natural circumstances.

Kiwiberries are quite disease resistant, but they are susceptible to phytophthora root rot in excessively moist soils.   Alternatively, dry soil will dramatically slow growth for at least a few years.

Kiwis are quite sensitive to ethylene.   Even a small amount can encourage them to ripen faster in storage.

Hardy kiwis are borderline invasive.   Arctic kiwis are easier to control.



Read More

Hardy Kiwi
Actinidia arguta

74-32 Male

Zone
:
4b

74-46 Male

Developed in Chico, California.
Zone
:
4b

74-49

Originated in Chico, California
Zone
:
4b
Ripens
:
mid-late   :   roughly 1 week before Anna.

74-49 has been referred to as both Fortyniner and Chico by nurseries, but considering it's number, it's probably Fortyniner.

Andrey Male

buy
Zone
:
3b

Anna

buy
Originated in Russia
Zone
:
4b
Ripens
:
late
Size
:
0.5 oz/berry
Color
:
green skin (purple-red blush)

Anna is also known as Ananasnaya or Annasnaya.   It is mentioned by nurseries for having a pineapple-like flavor.   I have not confirmed this, but it is still one of the favorites among home-growers (it hasn't been compared with many cultivars though).

high productivity

Chang Bai

buy
Seedling of Qui.  Selected in China near the border of North Korea.
Zone
:
4b

Change Bai has more of an apple or pumpkin shape.

Cherry Bomb

buy
Zone
:
4b? (4a)
Color
:
red skin

Cherry Bomb might be a cross between A. arguta and A.  kolomitka.   If so, it could be hardier than zone 4b.

Chico

buy
Zone
:
4b
Ripens
:
mid-late   :   1 week earlier than Anna.

Chico's fruit easily separate from the stem.

Cordifolia

buy
Zone
:
4b
Chill
:
low
Color
:
dark green skin

Cordifolia is said to be sweeter than the average A. arguta kiwi.   It appears to be referred to as "Meyer's Cordifolia" to avoid confusion with another cultivar that is now being referred to as "Early Cordifolia", but I don't know the full story.

Dumbarton Oaks

buy
Selected in Georgetown, Washington D.C
Zone
:
4b
Ripens
:
early-mid   :   3 to 4 weeks before Anna.
Color
:
light green skin

Dumbarton Oaks has a pumpkin-like shape.

Fifty Five

buy
Zone
:
4b
Ripens
:
early   :   roughly 6 weeks before Anna.

Flowercloud Male

buy
A. arguta x A. kolomikta
Zone
:
4b?

Flowercloud Male is precocious, begins flowering as soon as the year after planting.   It also blooms earlier in the season than other arguta cultivars due to its hybrid parentage.

Fortyniner

buy
Developed in Chico, California
Zone
:
4b
Ripens
:
mid-late?   :   somewhere between Dumbarton Oaks and Anna.

Fortyniner might be the same cultivar as 74-49.   Leaves may be larger than usual.

Geneva

buy
Selected in Geneva, New York
Zone
:
4b
Ripens
:
mid-late?   :   somewhere between Dumbarton Oaks and Anna.

Hardy Red

buy
Zone
:
4b
Color
:
red skin

sweet-tart, has supposedly done well in taste tests, according to nurseries.   I have not seen any results or heard about this cultivar elsewhere, so I would still consider it quite experimental.

Issai

buy
Originated in Japan
Zone
:
4b
Chill
:
300
Size
:
1.5" long berries

The vine of Issai is less vigorous than most other arguta cultivars.

partially self-fertile

Jumbo

buy
Originated in Italy.
Zone
:
4b
Size
:
1 oz/berry (large berries)
Color
:
green-yellow skin

Jumbo produces very large berries for a hardy kiwi, up to twice the size of Anna.   Probably the same cultivar as MSU (Michigan State).

Ken's Red

buy
A. arguta x A. melanandra.  Originated in New Zealand.
Zone
:
4b? ((5))
Ripens
:
late   :   Reports are quite contradicting.   Some say it's a few weeks earlier than Anna, but others say it ripens after Anna.   It probably ripens after Anna.
Chill
:
low
Size
:
large berries
Color
:
red skin

Ken's Red can be very productive but is possibly biennial.

Meader Male

buy
Zone
:
4b (4a)   :   has survived down to -28F (-33.33C)

There is also a female vine named Meader.

Natasha

buy
Originated in Vladivostok, Russia.
Zone
:
3b

Prolific

buy
Zone
:
4b
Color
:
dark green skin

partially self-fertile

Red Princess

buy
Cordifolia (A. arguta) x A. melanandra.  Originated in New Zealand.
Zone
:
4b? ((5))
Color
:
red skin

Rossana

buy
Originated in Italy.
Zone
:
3b
Size
:
0.5oz/berry
Color
:
green skin (red blush)?

Tatyana

buy
Zone
:
3b
Color
:
light green skin

Arctic Kiwi
Actinidia kolomikta

Arctic Beauty Male

buy
Zone
:
3a

ornamental leaves

Emerald

buy
Zone
:
3a
Color
:
light green skin

Frost

buy
Zone
:
3a
Ripens
:
early? (early-mid)   :   one of the first to ripen

Frost ripens earlier than most other Kolomikta varieties.

Hero

buy
Selected from the wild near Vladivostock, Russia (Far East).
Zone
:
3a
Color
:
light green skin

Hero is also known as Dostoynaya.   Unconfirmed report of being partially self-fertile.

Pasha Male

buy
Zone
:
3a

ornamental leaves

Red Beauty

buy
Zone
:
3a

September Sun

buy
Originated in Russia.
Zone
:
3a
Ripens
:
mid?

September Sun is also known as Sentyabraskaya.   It is the only female I know of that produces ornamental leaves like the arctic male vines do.

ornamental leaves

Viktor

buy
Selected from the wild north of Vladivostok, Russia.
Zone
:
3a
Size
:
large berries

Viktor produces larger berries than most other kolomikta varieties.

Silver Vine Kiwi
Actinidia polygama

Hot Pepper

buy
Developed in Vladivostok, Russia
Zone
:
3b   :   possibly lower
Color
:
light orange skin

"sweet and spicy", somewhat like a mild chili pepper, according to nurseries.   I have not seen any home-growers confirm or deny this yet.

Pavel Male

buy
Originated in the Russian Far East.
Zone
:
3b   :   possibly lower

green and white-silver foliage

ornamental leaves

Vera's Pride

buy
Zone
:
3b   :   possibly lower
Color
:
light orange skin

Golden Kiwi
Actinidia chinensis

AU Golden Dragon

buy
Originated and selected in China in-spite of it's AU tag? (based on AU Golden Tiger's description)
Zone
:
8a? (7)
Ripens
:
late?   :   matures roughly 7 weeks earlier than AU Fitzgerald (mid-late August in central Alabama)
Chill
:
800
Size
:
89 g/fruit
Color
:
yellow-green flesh

Golden Dragon can hang on the vine for roughly a month after maturing, but the fruit will become very soft (this may be typical for many A. chinensis and A. deliciosa varieties, and they may be able to hang on the vine for many months, as long as it doesn't get too cold).

AU Golden Sunshine

buy
Selected in Alabama from material that originated in Chongyang County of China (Hubei Province).
Zone
:
8a? (7)
Blooms
:
late   :   buds break early April, flowers mid-late April in central Alabama
Ripens
:
very late?   :   matures mid September in central Alabama, roughly 4 weeks before AU Fitzgerald
Chill
:
700
Size
:
90 g/fruit
Color
:
yellow flesh

AU Golden Tiger Male

buy
AU Golden Dragon x unknown male, pollination occured in China.  Selected in Auburn, Alabama.
Zone
:
8a? (7)
Blooms
:
late   :   along with AU Golden Sunshine

Fuzzy Kiwi
Actinidia deliciosa

AU Authur Male

buy
Zone
:
8a? (7)
Chill
:
less than 800

AU Fitzgerald

buy
possibly a seedling of Hayward.  Developed in Summerdale, Alabama.
Zone
:
8a? (7)
Ripens
:
extremely late   :   matures mid October in central Alabama
Chill
:
550 - 800
Size
:
70 g/fruit

Blake

buy
Zone
:
7
Ripens
:
very late   :   roughly 4 weeks earlier than Hayward

partially self-fertile, precocious

Bruno

buy
chance seedling.  Discovered in New Zealand (1920's).
Zone
:
7
Blooms
:
late?   :   later than other A.  deliciosa
Ripens
:
extremely late?
Chill
:
50 - 250
Afflictions
:
Resistant to PSA-V

elongated fruit, bears more reliably than Hayward, but doesn't store as well.

Early Bird

buy
Zone
:
7
Ripens
:
very late? (extremely late)
Chill
:
50 - 250

Elmwood

buy
Zone
:
7
Ripens
:
extremely late?
Size
:
up to 10 oz/fruit

Exbury

buy
Zone
:
7
Ripens
:
very late

unconfirmed report of being partially self-fertile

Forest

buy
Zone
:
7
Ripens
:
extremely late?
Chill
:
50 - 250

Hayward

buy
chance seedling.  Discovered in Auckland, New Zealand (1920's).
Zone
:
7   :   down to -2F (-18.88C)
Ripens
:
extremely late
Chill
:
600 - 800

Hayward is the most commercially cultivated variety.

stores for roughly 6 months in cold storage (long)

Matua Male

buy
Zone
:
7
Chill
:
100 - 150

Saanichton

buy
Zone
:
6b
Blooms
:
late?   :   more resistant to temperature fluctuations
Ripens
:
very late   :   a few weeks before Hayward and Elmwood.   ripens in the cool summer climate of Vancouver, where most other A.  deliciosa will not.

precocious

Vincent

buy
Zone
:
8? (7)
Ripens
:
extremely late
Chill
:
100

Vincent requires 240 frost free days in a fairly hot summer climate.