hazelnut species [+/-]
Enviroment
European hazelnuts (Corylus avellana) grow very well in moist, cool summer climates, but they perform poorly in hot, dry climates. The bush can survive down to zone 4 or 5. While their flowers can survive down to 10F (-12.2C) or lower and their catkins can survive down to 15F (-9.4C) when fully elongated, they bloom extremely early, so they are often damaged by frost in many regions (particularly those away from large bodies of water since they help regulate temperature). Newer, late blooming cultivars may be able to bloom up to a full month later than older cultivars such as "Barcelona", but I have seen no word on how they fair in most of the US.

American hazelnuts (Corylus americana) are native to most of the Eastern half of North America. They are better adapted to hotter summers and colder winters as well as late frosts.

Hazelnuts tolerate partial shade.
Pollination
European hazelnuts are self-sterile, and many cultivars are incompatible with one another.
Yield
Clones can start producing after 2-4 years.
Soil
preferred pH: 6.5 to 7.0. acceptable pH: 5.6 to 7.5
Other
Eastern filbert blight is a very serious disease, but most of the newer European cultivars, as well as species native to North America, are highly resistant to it.

American and Beaked hazelnut kernels are usually much smaller in size and are harder to crack than European hazelnuts. A few improvements are available and more are being worked on.
Additional Reading
Hazelnuts (Filberts)
Growing Hazelnuts in the Pacific Northwest: Hazelnut Varieties
Developing Hazelnuts for the Eastern United States
Eastern Filbert Blight

European Hazelnut
Corylus avellana

Barcelona

Zone
:
4? (5)
Blooms
:
early
Ripens
:
late
Size
:
3.3-3.8g/nut, 39-43% kernel, 70-85% have good nuts
Afflictions
:
Resistant to bud mite. Susceptible to eastern filbert blight.

Barcelona is the standard commercial cultivar, but it is being replaced by Jefferson. Moderate cumulative and efficiency yield.

Burgundy Lace

OSU 562.034 (Cutleaf x VR6-28 (Riccia di Talanico x Gasaway)) x OSU 562.062 (Cutleaf x Redleaf #3 (Barcelona x open-pollination, possibly Rode Zeller)). Oregon 1998.
Zone
:
4
Blooms
:
late - roughly 4 weeks after Barcelona
Ripens
:
late - roughly 0.5 weeks before Barcelona
Size
:
1.72 g/nut, 44.1% kernel, the plant is 70% of the size of Barcelona
Afflictions
:
Somewhat susceptible to bud mite.

The leaves of Burgundy Lace are dissected and have a burgundy color all season long. Also has burgundy catkins and leaf buds. Catkins are small and produce little pollen. lightly productive

Clark

Tombul Ghiaghli x Willamette. Selected in Oregon 1992.
Zone
:
4? (5)
Blooms
:
late
Ripens
:
mid-late - roughly 1 to 1.5 weeks before Barcelona
Size
:
nuts are 25-50% smaller than Barcelona (making Clark roughly 1.9g/nut) with about 45-51% being kernel, defects can be up to 20-40% based on 2 years of research in Oregon.
Afflictions
:
Somewhat resistant to somewhat susceptible to bud mites. Somewhat susceptible to eastern filbert blight.

Clark is as productive as Barcelona, but it has greater efficiency yield since it grows to about 70% of the size.

Delta

Probably originated in Oregon. Released in 2002.
Zone
:
4? (5)
Blooms
:
mid
Afflictions
:
Resistant to eastern filbert blight. Resistant to somewhat resistant to bud mite.

Delta is likely smaller than Barcelona in size.

Dorris

OSU 309.074 (Tonda Gentile delle Langhe x OSU 23.017 (Barcelona x Extra Ghiaghli)) x Delta. The seed was harvested in Corvallis, Oregon 1997. Released in 2011.
Zone
:
4
Blooms
:
mid - roughly 2 weeks after Barcelona
Ripens
:
late - similar time as Barcelona
Size
:
3.37g/nut, 43% kernel
Afflictions
:
Resistant to eastern filbert blight. Resistant or somewhat resistant to bud mite.

Dorris is as productive as Barcelona but is quite efficient due to growing to about 60% of the size.

Ennis

Zone
:
4? (5)
Ripens
:
late - roughly 0 to 0.5 weeks after Barcelona
Size
:
3.1-4.6g/nut, 43-46% kernel
Afflictions
:
Susceptible to eastern filbert blight.

high cumulative and efficiency yield, 60-70% size of Barcelona, may have double the usual nut defects some years.

Epsilon

Zone
:
4? (5)
Afflictions
:
Resistant to eastern filbert blight.

Epsilon is probably 70% of the size of Barcelona or less.

Eta

Zone
:
4? (5)
Blooms
:
late
Ripens
:
late - roughly 0 to 0.5 weeks after Barcelona
Size
:
2.8g/nut, 48% kernel
Afflictions
:
Resistant to eastern filbert blight. Somewhat resistant to bud mite.

Eta grows to about 75% of the size of Barcelona. moderate cumulative yield? low efficiency yield?

Felix

OSU 384.095 (Casina x OSU 55.129 (Tonda Gentile delle Langhe x Extra Ghiaghli)) x Delta. First grown in Corvallis, Oregon 1999.
Zone
:
4
Blooms
:
mid-late
Ripens
:
mid-late - roughly 1 to 1.5 weeks before Barcelona
Size
:
2.65g/nut, 50% kernel
Afflictions
:
Resistant to eastern filbert blight. Somewhat resistant to bud mite.

Felix grows as large as Barcelona. It is less productive, but nut defects appear to be quite low.

Jefferson

Zone
:
4? (5)
Blooms
:
late
Ripens
:
late - similar time as Barcelona.
Afflictions
:
Resistant to eastern filbert blight. Resistant to somewhat resistant to bud mite.

Jefferson is being used to replace Barcelona as the main commercial producer due to its equivalent or slightly better nut quality, higher yield efficiency, and resistance to eastern filbert blight. Jefferson grows to about 70% of the size of Barcelona and has an equivalent cumulative yield.

Lewis

Developed in Oregon.
Zone
:
4? (5)
Blooms
:
mid
Ripens
:
mid-late - roughly 0.5 to 1 weeks before Barcelona
Size
:
2.8g/nut, 46-48% kernel
Afflictions
:
Resistant to bud mite. Somewhat susceptible to eastern filbert blight.

Lewis grows to about 75% of the size of Barcelona and has a high cumulative and efficiency yield.

Mcdonald

Tonda Pacifica (Tonda Gentile delle Langhe x OSU 23.024 (Barcelona x Extra Ghiaghli)) x Santiam. First grown in Corvellis, Oregon 1998.
Zone
:
4
Blooms
:
mid
Ripens
:
mid - roughly 2 weeks before Barcelona
Size
:
2.5g/nut, 51.5% kernel
Afflictions
:
Resistant to eastern filbert blight. Somewhat resistant to bud mite.

Mcdonald grows to roughly 75-85% of the size of Barcelona. Moderate cumulative yield and moderate-high efficiency yield. Produces a low number of defects.

Red Dragon

OSU 487.055 (Contorta x VR 6-28 (Riccia di Talanico x Gasaway)) x OSU 367.039 (Contorta x open-pollination, possibly Rode Zeller). First grown in Corvellis, Oregon 1998.
Zone
:
4? (5)
Blooms
:
late
Afflictions
:
Resistant to eastern filbert blight. Somewhat susceptible to bud mite.

Red Dragon produces burgundy leaves and catkins and forms contorted branches. Produces a superior burgundy color when compared to "Red Majestic". The nuts are small and few in number.

Sacajawea

Released in Corvellis, Oregon 2006.
Zone
:
4? (5)
Blooms
:
mid
Ripens
:
mid to mid-late - roughly 1 to 2 weeks before Barcelona.
Size
:
2.8g/nut, 48-50% kernel
Afflictions
:
Resistant to bud mite. Somewhat resistant to eastern filbert blight.

Sacajawea grows to about 85% of the size of Barcelona. High cumulative and efficiency yield.

Santiam

Zone
:
4? (5)

Theta

Released in Corvallis, Oregon 2009.
Zone
:
4? (5)
Blooms
:
late
Ripens
:
late - roughly 0 to 1 week after Barcelona.
Size
:
2.3g/nut, 50% kernel
Afflictions
:
Resistant to eastern filbert blight. Somewhat resistant to bud mite.

Theta grows to roughly the same size as Barcelona. Low cumulative and efficiency yield.

Tonda Di Giffoni

Popular in Italy. May have originated there.
Zone
:
4? (5)
Blooms
:
mid
Ripens
:
late - same time as Barcelona.
Size
:
2.7 to 3.2g/nut, 45-50% kernel
Afflictions
:
Resistant to bud mite. Somewhat resistant to eastern filbert blight.

Tonda Di Giffoni has a few more defected nuts when compared to newer cultivars. Grows to about 55% of the size of Barcelona. Moderate cumulative yield and high efficiency yield based on plant size.

Tonda Pacifica

Tonda Gentile delle Langhe x OSU 23.024 (Barcelona x Extra Ghiaghli). First grown in Corvallis, Oregon 1982.
Zone
:
4? (5)
Blooms
:
mid? (early)
Ripens
:
mid-late - roughly 1 to 1.5 weeks before Barcelona.
Size
:
2.24g/nut, 47% kernel
Afflictions
:
Somewhat resistant to somewhat susceptible to bud mite. Susceptible to eastern filbert blight.

Tonda Pacifica trees are smaller than Barcelona by an unspecified amount. Moderate cumulative yield and high efficiency yield. Produces fewer defects than Barcelona.

Wepster

Tonda Pacifica x OSU 440.005 (OSU 49.073 (OSU 14.084 (Barcelona x Daviana) x Tombul Ghiaghli) x VR 8-32 (Montebello x Gasaway)). First grown in Corvallis, Oregon 1998.
Zone
:
4
Blooms
:
mid
Ripens
:
mid-late - roughly 1 to 1.5 weeks before Barcelona.
Size
:
2.39g/nut, 43.9% kernel
Afflictions
:
Resistant to eastern filbert blight. Somewhat susceptible to bud mite?

Wepster grows to roughly 80-110% of the size of Barcelona. High cumulative and efficiency yield.

Yamhill

Zone
:
4? (5)
Blooms
:
mid
Ripens
:
mid to mid-late - roughly 1 to 2 weeks before Barcelona.
Size
:
2.3g/nut, 49% kernel
Afflictions
:
Resistant to eastern filbert blight. Somewhat susceptible to bud mite.

Yamhill grows to about 60-70% of the size of Barcelona. High cumulative and efficiency yield, but it can produce a high number of defects.

York

OSU 479.027 (OSU 231.111 x OSU 226.122) x OSU 504.065 (OSU 186.080 x VR 17-15). First grown in Corvallis, Oregon 1998.
Zone
:
4
Blooms
:
mid - roughly 2 weeks after Barcelona.
Ripens
:
mid-late - roughly 0.5 to 1.5 weeks before Barcelona.
Size
:
2.73 to 2.85g/nut, 46% kernel
Afflictions
:
Resistant to eastern filbert blight. Somewhat resistant to somewhat susceptible to bud mite.

York grows to about 75% of the size of Barcelona. Moderate cumulative and efficiency yield.

Zeta

Zone
:
4? (5)
Blooms
:
late
Afflictions
:
Resistant to eastern filbert blight.

Zeta is smaller in size than Barcelona.

American Hazelnut
Corylus americana

Ecos American seedlings

Selected individuals grew from seeds that originated in Minnesota (from the Winkler cultivar), Iowa, central Michigan, and southwest Michigan.
Zone
:
3
Blooms
:
very late?
Afflictions
:
Resistant to eastern filbert blight.

Seedlings from 20 individuals selected from over 1000 plants over the coarse of 20 years. Nuts are typically small to medium in size, many of which "supposedly" produce thin, easy to crack shells.

Skinner

Originated in Manitoba, Canada.
Zone
:
3a
Blooms
:
very late?
Ripens
:
early - 70 to 90 days after pollination
Afflictions
:
Resistant to eastern filbert blight.

Skinner grows up to 4 to 6ft in height and produces few runners. Nuts are slightly larger than the average american hazelnut.

Sunharvest

Zone
:
4? (3)
Blooms
:
very late?
Afflictions
:
Resistant to eastern filbert blight.

Implied to have larger nuts and greater productivity than the average american hazelnut.

Winkler

Originated in Iowa, introduced in 1918.
Zone
:
3
Blooms
:
very late?
Afflictions
:
Resistant to eastern filbert blight.

Winkler probably produces much larger nuts than the average american hazelnuts. Grows to roughly 6ft in height.

hybrid Hazelnut
Corylus hybrid

Badgersett seedlings

C. americana x C. cornuta x C. avellana
Zone
:
4 (some experimenters have succeeded in zone 3)
Afflictions
:
Most seedlings appear to be resistant to eastern filbert blight.

Badgersett Farm sells seedlings from multi-generation, improved hybrid selections.

Ken

C. avellana x C. americana
Zone
:
4a? (3b)
Afflictions
:
Resistant to eastern filbert blight and bud mites.

Precocious

C. avellana x C. americana
Zone
:
4a? (3)
Blooms
:
late
Afflictions
:
Resistant to eastern filbert blight.

Trazel

C. colurna x hybrid open-pollination
Zone
:
4a? (3)
Size
:
Trazel nuts are twice the size of the standard american hazelnut.
Afflictions
:
Resistant to eastern filbert blight.